Welcome to the McKinstry-Wu (McWu) Lab. We are a basic science lab investigating the neural pathways contributing to anesthetic hypnosis and emergence/recovery from unconsciousness. Working both with rodent models and human volunteers, we look at behavioral and neurophysiologic outputs using pharmacologic, genetic, optogenetic, behavioral, and sensory stimulus interventions. As part of the Neuroscience of Unconsciousness and Reanimation Research Alliance (NeURRAL) at the University of Pennsylvania, we closely collaborate with a cross-disciplinary group of researchers who share our passion for probing the neural machinery underlying hypnosis and the subsequent reconstruction of consciousness.